While the move towards open access and its benefit to the wider scientific community is laudable, it comes at a cost—a cost, like most publishing costs in academia, that is ultimately funded by the general public. In 2023, approximately 45% of academic papers were published as open access. This figure represents a continuation of the growth trend seen in open access publishing over the past decade. This figure is based on all OA models: fully open access (gold), green (self-archived), bronze (free to read without a clear license), and hybrid models. Approximately $2.25 billion of public funds were spent to make those academic papers open access.

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