Scientia Issue #115

Dec 8, 2017 | Issues

In this electrifying edition of Scientia, we showcase the work of various research groups across the globe, each dedicated to shifting paradigms in the diverse fields of physical science and engineering.

To begin, we delve deep into the most fundamental building blocks of our Universe – the elementary particles. Here, we explore everything from the trillions of cosmic neutrinos that pass through our bodies every second, to the antimatter positrons used in medical imaging technology. We also feature an exclusive interview with Professor Tara Shears about her team’s recent discovery of five particles at CERN. We then jump up the scales – first showcasing the latest paradigm shifts in molecular science, followed by recent breakthroughs in nanotechnology. Finally, we introduce a team of scientists who investigate (amongst other things) the dynamic behaviour of raindrops, which may help us to more accurately forecast extreme weather events caused by climate change.

In our middle section of the edition, we meet many remarkable researchers – each dedicated to combatting climate change and solving the energy crisis through developing and improving sustainable energy technologies. Here, we feature several varied and promising research projects, from boosting the efficiency of wind turbines, to creating the most energy-dense lithium-ion battery, and finally, to realising controlled nuclear fusion as a future power source.

Finally, we showcase the latest innovations in computer science and engineering, where we meet an incredible bunch of researchers, each aiming to improve our lives through enhancing our computing technologies. One team of researchers is combining analogue and digital computing to create a device capable of solving large sets of differential equations, while another has created an accurate and affordable virtual reality controller, which holds promise for numerous fields, including medicine, architecture and gaming.

From illuminating our understanding of the Universe, to combatting climate change and developing futuristic computing technologies, the research teams featured in this edition are certainly paving the way to a bright future for all.

Contributors from…

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CONTACT

Published in the UK, by Science Diffusion ltd
ISSN 2059-8971 (print)
ISSN 2059-898X (online)  
E: info@sciencediffusion.com
W: www.sciencediffusion.com
W: www.scientia.global

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Meet The Team…

DIRECTOR
Nick Bagnall 
nick@sciencediffusion.com

EDITOR-IN-CHIEF
Nelly Berg 
nelly@sciencediffusion.com 

EDITOR
Catriona Houston 
catriona@sciencediffusion.com 

PUBLICATION MANAGERS 
Brett Langenberg
brett@sciencediffusion.com
Nick Powers
npowers@sciencediffusion.com
Marie Serrano
marie@sciencediffusion.com
Tom Render
tom@sciencediffusion.com
Hannah Warren
hannah@sciencediffusion.com  

DESIGN MANAGER
Mimi Jones
 

CONTRIBUTING WRITERS 
Stuart Henry Wilson, PhD
Rebecca Ingle, PhD
Jessica Bristow, PhD
Alma Ionescu, BSc
Matthew Aitkenhead, PhD
Samuel Jarman, MSc
Chris Harrison, PhD
Paul Hattle, BSc
Andrew Breeson, PhD
 

Scientia Issue #115 Contents

 

Scientia issue 115

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ILLUMINATING OUR PHYSICAL WORLD:
FROM QUARKS TO RAINDROPS

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FIVE NEW PARTICLES DISCOVERED AT CERN
An exclusive interview with Professor Tara Shears,
a scientist behind CERN’s omega_c baryon discovery

 

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THE RAPP CENTER: SEARCHING FOR ANSWERS IN PLASMA-ASTROPARTICLE PHYSICS

Unravelling the mysteries of the Universe by tracking cosmic elementary particles

 

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TICAL AIMS FOR PARADIGM SHIFT IN PET IMAGING
Professor Paul Lecoq
Modifying PET technology to aid more precise diagnoses and increase patient survival rates

 

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THE UNEXPECTED SPIRALS OF ELECTRON DENSITY
Dr Jasper van Wezel
Explaining how electrons can spontaneously organise into corkscrew shapes

 

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CALLING IN THE BIOELECTRICIAN
Dr Andrew K. Udit

Developing a system that can exploit cytochrome P450 enzymes in medical and industrial applications

 

THE EXACTING TASK OF BRINGING MOLECULES TO ATTENTION - Bretislav Friedrich

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THE EXACTING TASK OF BRINGING MOLECULES TO ATTENTION
Professor Bretislav Friedrich
Using electromagnetic fields to orient molecules, while solving the Schrödinger equation for these interactions

 

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MONITORING AND CONTROLLING THE DELIVERY OF SINGLE MOLECULES THROUGH NANOPORES
Dr Lisa Burden and Dr Daniel Burden
Controlling molecules as they are transported through nanometre-sized pores, towards the development of chemical sensors

 

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DETERMINING THE TOXICITY OF NANOMATERIALS
The SmartNanoTox team

Resolving the mechanisms underlying nanotoxicity, to provide an efficient approach for predicting the toxicity of nanomaterials

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THE SCIENTIFIC AND MATHEMATICAL WORLD OF TEXTILES
Professor Ning Pan

Understanding the underlying mechanisms behind unique material properties

HYPERSONIC LASER TAGGING: A NEW WAY OF UNDERSTANDING FLUID MECHANICS - Professor Richard Miles

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HYPERSONIC LASER TAGGING: A NEW WAY OF UNDERSTANDING FLUID MECHANICS
Professor Richard B. Miles

Developing FLEET, a pioneering way of measuring the velocities of high-speed fluids

UNDERSTANDING PARTICLE-FLUID INTERACTION DYNAMICS IN TURBULENT FLOW - Dr Lian-Ping Wang

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UNDERSTANDING PARTICLE-FLUID INTERACTION DYNAMICS IN TURBULENT FLOW

Dr Lian-Ping Wang 
New models to predict phenomena from rainfall patterns to particle transport in industrial processes

 

Scientia issue 115

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A FUTURE OF SUSTAINABLE ENERGY

 

CATCHING THE WIND: UNDERSTANDING THE DYNAMICS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY

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CATCHING THE WIND: UNDERSTANDING THE DYNAMICS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY
Dr Glen Whitehouse

Meet the team at Continuum Dynamics, who are developing ways to model wind turbine interactions

 

THE HIGHEST ENERGY LI-ION BATTERY: UNLOCKING THE POTENTIAL OF THE SILICON ANODE AND NICKEL-RICH NMC CATHODE

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THE HIGHEST ENERGY LI-ION BATTERY: UNLOCKING THE POTENTIAL OF THE SILICON ANODE AND NICKEL-RICH NMC CATHODE
Dr Daniela Molina Piper and Dr Tyler Evans

Meet the team at SiILion, who have rewritten the rulebook for lithium-ion battery design

 

THE EXOTIC CHEMISTRY OF THE HEAVIEST ELEMENTS

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THE EXOTIC CHEMISTRY OF THE HEAVIEST ELEMENTS
Professor Thomas E. Albrecht-Schmitt

Exploring bonding in radioactive molecules, towards designing compounds to clean up nuclear waste

IN SILICO CHEMISTRY: MODELLING THE REACTIONS OF HEAVY ELEMENTS

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IN SILICO CHEMISTRY: MODELLING THE REACTIONS OF HEAVY ELEMENTS
Dr Kirk A. Peterson

Developing computational tools for accurately modelling the chemistry of heavy elements

 

CLEANING UP A CATASTROPHE

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CLEANING UP A CATASTROPHE
Professor Peter H. Santschi

Investigating the consequences of when radioactive substances are released into the environment

 

HOPE FOR HUMANITY IN THE ENERGY CRISIS: ASTRONOMICAL JETS IN A LAB

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HOPE FOR HUMANITY IN THE ENERGY CRISIS: ASTRONOMICAL JETS IN A LAB
Professor Setthivoine You

Taking inspiration from astrophysical jets to achieve nuclear fusion on Earth

 

LITERAL SUN JARS: SHRINKING STARS FOR ENERGY PRODUCTION

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LITERAL SUN JARS: SHRINKING STARS FOR ENERGY PRODUCTIO
Professor Michael Brown

Developing a totally new approach to fusion energy through magneto-inertial fusion

 

Scientia issue 115

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THE COMPUTING REVOLUTION CONTINUES

 

MIXING ANALOGUE AND DIGITAL COMPUTERS: THE FUTURE IS HYBRID

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MIXING ANALOGUE AND DIGITAL COMPUTERS: THE FUTURE IS HYBRID
Dr Michael D Bryant and Dr Benito Fernandez

Combining analogue and digital components to create a computer for solving large sets of differential equations

 

USING NOISE TO CONTROL MICROMECHANICAL & MACROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS

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USING NOISE TO CONTROL MICROMECHANICAL & MACROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS
Professor Balakumar Balachandran

Harnessing the power of noise to make tiny mechanical oscillators operate better than before

 

MAPPING P-ADIC SPACES WITH HEIGHT PAIRINGS

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MAPPING P-ADIC SPACES WITH HEIGHT PAIRINGS
Professor Amnon Besser

Exploiting P-adic numbers to solve long-standing problems bridging several fields of mathematics

 

ALGORITHMIC ACCELERATION OF COMPUTING PERFORMANCE

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ALGORITHMIC ACCELERATION OF COMPUTING PERFORMANCE
Professor Xiaodong Zhang

Developing more efficient algorithms to revolutionise the design of computer components

 

SEARCHING FOR THE PERFECT PICTURE

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EARCHING FOR THE PERFECT PICTURE
Dr Gerald Friedland and Jaeyoung Choi

Developing better tools for image and video-based Internet searches

 

CHIRPING COMMUNICATION – SENDING DATA OVER SOUND

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CHIRPING COMMUNICATION – SENDING DATA OVER SOUND
Dr Daniel Jones

Meet the team at Chirp, who harness the power of sound to send data

 

CAPTIVE: A NEW DIRECTION FOR VIRTUAL REALITY CONTROLLERS

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CAPTIVE: A NEW DIRECTION FOR VIRTUAL REALITY CONTROLLERS
Professor Christopher G. Healey and Zeyuan Chen

Creating CAPTIVE – an accurate and affordable controller system for virtual reality applications