Agricultural Science

Rise of Resistant Black-grass Costs UK £400 Million Annually

Rise of Resistant Black-grass Costs UK £400 Million Annually

In a recent study published in Nature Sustainability, scientists from the Zoological Society of London (ZSL) estimate that herbicide resistance of a major agricultural weed is costing the UK economy £400 million each year. The research team’s new model is the first to be able to accurately quantify the economic costs of herbicide-resistant black-grass and its impact on wheat yield under various farming scenarios, with significant implications for national food security. In this exclusive interview, we speak with Dr Alexa Varah, lead author of the research, who describes the growing problem of herbicide resistance and the capabilities of her team’s model.

Dr Susanne Zeilinger – Fighting Fungi with Fungi: Utilising Chemical Warfare for Human Benefit

Dr Susanne Zeilinger – Fighting Fungi with Fungi: Utilising Chemical Warfare for Human Benefit

Fungi feeding on other fungi (mycoparasites) represent a promising alternative to chemical fungicides for plant disease control. They also have potential applications in medicine and across industry. Dr Susanne Zeilinger and her team from the University of Innsbruck in Austria are working to identify and characterise the genes and gene products that are active during the interactions of antagonistic fungi. This critical work is paving the way for improvement of fungal strains as biotechnological workhorses in plant protection and beyond.

The American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers

The American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers

Representing approximately 7,000 members in over 100 countries, the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE) is devoted to advancing engineering research applicable to agriculture, food and biological systems. In this exclusive interview, we have had the pleasure of speaking with Dr Sue Nokes, President of ASABE, who discusses the myriad of ways that the Society accelerates this diverse research field, towards ensuring global food, energy and water security, in the face of our changing climate and growing human population.

Dr Amy Schmidt – iAMResponsibleTM: Educating Food Producers & Consumers About Antimicrobial Resistance

Dr Amy Schmidt – iAMResponsibleTM: Educating Food Producers & Consumers About Antimicrobial Resistance

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR), the acquired ability of microorganisms to withstand the effects of medications used to treat them, is a serious and growing threat to public health. In collaboration with experts from various US institutions, Dr Amy Schmidt at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln has developed a program called the iAMResponsibleTM Project, aimed at educating consumers, agricultural producers and others on the risks associated with AMR, as well as strategies to mitigate these risks.

Dr Mark Boyce – Adapting Grassland Grazing to Boost Carbon Sequestration

Dr Mark Boyce – Adapting Grassland Grazing to Boost Carbon Sequestration

Globally, grassland ecosystems represent a vast, often under-appreciated store of carbon. Sustainable grazing practices offer the potential for maximising the role of these ecosystems as carbon storehouses and biodiversity safeguards. Dr Mark Boyce and his team from the University of Alberta have been investigating how cattle-grazed systems can be adapted to increase carbon storage on the Canadian Prairies. They use the data collected to create protocols for supporting the inclusion of grazing strategies in climate mitigation plans.

Dr Robert K. Vander Meer – Illuminating Insect Chemical Ecology for Effective Pest Control

Dr Robert K. Vander Meer – Illuminating Insect Chemical Ecology for Effective Pest Control

Because of growing international trade, increasing numbers of invasive pest insects are being transported throughout the world. If they become established, invasive insects can have enormous impacts on agriculture, human health and natural ecosystems. However, it can be difficult to control them without causing further damage to the surrounding environment. Dr Robert K. Vander Meer of the USDA Agricultural Research Service studies the chemistry of pest ants, as it pertains to their behaviour and biological systems, with the aim of identifying efficient novel methods to monitor and control them.

FARAD: Reducing Chemical Residues in Animal Products

FARAD: Reducing Chemical Residues in Animal Products

Residues of drugs, pesticides and other chemical substances can reduce the safety of animal-derived foods, adversely affecting the health and confidence of consumers. To address this pressing issue, scientists at several US universities founded the Food Animal Residue Avoidance Databank (FARAD), a program aimed at providing veterinarians and livestock producers with knowledge and tools that can help in preventing or reducing the presence of chemical residues in food.

Dr Philipp Simon – Investigating Carrot Colours to Produce Healthier Crops

Dr Philipp Simon – Investigating Carrot Colours to Produce Healthier Crops

Carrots display a wide range of different colours – orange, purple, white, red and yellow – driven by the accumulation of various compounds. These compounds affect the nutritional value and health benefits of the roots, making them prime targets for breeding better varieties. Dr Philipp Simon and his colleagues at the United States Department of Agriculture investigate the genetics of carrot colours to help breeders develop even more nutritious strains.

Dr Todd Sink – Farming an All-Female Flounder Population

Dr Todd Sink – Farming an All-Female Flounder Population

Southern flounder is an economically important edible fish, but farming of this species has not yet been perfected. In fact, fish farms are heavily reliant on capturing new fish from the wild each year for breeding purposes. However, wild populations are in decline due to changing environmental conditions and over-exploitation, which presents a real challenge to the sustainable production of this species. Dr Todd Sink and his colleagues at Texas A&M University are developing new methods to move away from the use of wild fish, by creating a sustainable captive breeding stock.

Dr Devin Coleman-Derr – Beneficial Microorganisms to Help Plants Tolerate Drought

Dr Devin Coleman-Derr – Beneficial Microorganisms to Help Plants Tolerate Drought

The incidence and severity of droughts continue to increase across the globe, posing a significant threat to agricultural productivity and our ability to feed a rapidly increasing human population. However, drought-stressed plants encourage a shift in the microorganism communities surrounding their roots, which in turn may help the plants to tolerate drought conditions. By harnessing this system, Dr Devin Coleman-Derr and his team at the USDA Agricultural Research Service and University of California, Berkeley, aim to develop microbial-based treatments to improve the drought tolerance and productivity of important crop species.

Dr Richard Teague – Achieving Sustainable Farming Through Regenerative Cropping & Grazing

Dr Richard Teague – Achieving Sustainable Farming Through Regenerative Cropping & Grazing

Traditional intensive farming practices have significant negative consequences for the land and surrounding ecosystems. By disrupting the natural function of these habitats, the valuable ecosystem services they provide are compromised. Dr Richard Teague in the department of Ecosystem Science and Management at Texas A&M University, and colleagues around North America, are investigating the costs and benefits of replacing traditional farming practices with regenerative cropping and grazing techniques that restore ecosystem function and soil health as the base for improving profits.

Dr Nicholas M. Teets – Advancing Genetic Control of Destructive Fruit Flies

Dr Nicholas M. Teets – Advancing Genetic Control of Destructive Fruit Flies

Fruit flies cause significant annual damage to fruit crops globally by laying their eggs into healthy, living fruit tissue. The difficulty in predicting the attacks and controlling the flies before it is too late leads farmers to spray pesticides that can have damaging consequences for surrounding ecosystems. Dr Nicholas M. Teets and his team from the University of Kentucky’s Department of Entomology aim to eliminate the need for pesticides in the battle against these insect pests, through the development of sterile insects that are easy to rear and release en masse.

Dr Renée Arias | Dr Victor Sobolev | Dr Marshall Lamb – Ensuring Peanut Safety by Harnessing Plant Defences

Dr Renée Arias | Dr Victor Sobolev | Dr Marshall Lamb – Ensuring Peanut Safety by Harnessing Plant Defences

Fungal toxins that may accumulate in peanuts pose a hidden threat to people globally. Whereas European countries and the USA have controls to prevent contaminated seed from entering the market, this is not available in many developing countries, where peanuts are a vital source of protein and nutrients. However, detecting and controlling these toxins has posed significant scientific and economic challenges. Dr Renée Arias, Dr Victor Sobolev and Dr Marshall Lamb of the USDA National Peanut Research Laboratory have pioneered methods for inhibiting toxin production using RNAi technology and enhancing natural peanut defences.

Dr Michael Rothrock – Ensuring Food Safety of Pasture-Raised Chicken

Dr Michael Rothrock – Ensuring Food Safety of Pasture-Raised Chicken

Pasture-raised chicken is viewed as a more ethical option compared to that reared in overcrowded barns. However, pasture-raised birds are more likely to come in contact with bacterial pathogens that can be dangerous to consumers. Dr Michael Rothrock and his colleagues, at the Egg Safety and Quality Research Unit of the United States Department of Agriculture – Agricultural Research Service, investigate how environmental factors can lead to the contamination of pasture-raised chicken with harmful bacteria. Through their research, the team hopes to find ways of ensuring the safety of this popular food.

Dr Amber Adams-Progar – A Holistic Approach to Improving Dairy Farming

Dr Amber Adams-Progar – A Holistic Approach to Improving Dairy Farming

Dairy farming is a tough business, where farmers experience countless challenges on a regular basis, from ensuring the health and welfare of their cattle to protecting the safety of their employees. Dr Amber Adams-Progar and her team in the Department of Animal Sciences at Washington State University are involved in many research projects, which aim to improve various aspects of the dairy industry, by protecting farm profits, worker safety and animal welfare.

Dr Steven Running – Monitoring Plant Productivity on a Global Scale

Dr Steven Running – Monitoring Plant Productivity on a Global Scale

Net primary productivity, or NPP, refers to the amount of carbon dioxide that plants take in during photosynthesis, minus the amount released during respiration, resulting in final observable biomass. As carbon dioxide is the primary driver of climate change, having a full understanding of this process is now critical. However, until recently, global NPP and how it is affected by climate change were poorly understood. To obtain a complete picture of NPP and the factors that drive global changes, Dr Steven Running and his team at the University of Montana have been investigating satellite data from the past few decades.

Dr Lauren Lazaro – Weeding out Herbicide Resistance

Dr Lauren Lazaro – Weeding out Herbicide Resistance

Weeds that are resistant to herbicides pose an ever-growing danger to our major crops, threatening global food security. Dr Lauren Lazaro and her colleagues at Louisiana State University AgCenter are testing new, herbicide-free techniques to control the spread of these threats.

Dr Hernan Garcia-Ruiz – When Viruses Infect Plants

Dr Hernan Garcia-Ruiz – When Viruses Infect Plants

Just as human beings can catch a cold, plants can also get viral infections. Understanding the mechanisms regulating the interactions between plants and viruses is the first step towards developing better management strategies and using biotechnology methods to...

Orange Innovation: Creating Citrus Disease Resistance

Orange Innovation: Creating Citrus Disease Resistance

Florida’s citrus industry is under threat from Huanglongbing (HLB, or citrus greening disease), a devastating plant disease. A collaboration between the University of Florida and the University of Connecticut aims to develop resistance to HLB in citrus plants, using...

Outcomes of Gender Summit 11, Co-hosted by NSERC

Outcomes of Gender Summit 11, Co-hosted by NSERC

From November 6 to 8, 2017, more than 675 advocates of gender equity from across many different fields in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) took part in Gender Summit 11, in Montreal, Quebec. Co-hosted by the Natural Sciences and Engineering...

Professor Gerald Reeck – The Molecular World of Aphid Feeding

Professor Gerald Reeck – The Molecular World of Aphid Feeding

Professor Gerald Reeck and his team at Kansas State University are investigating the molecular basis of aphid herbivory, including suppression of plant defences, using powerful methods of molecular genetics. This research is important for developing new aphid-pest...

AFCERC: The Agribusiness, Food & Consumer Economics Research Center

AFCERC: The Agribusiness, Food & Consumer Economics Research Center

  Research investigating the economic, social, psychological and physiological factors that influence consumers’ food choices can help in gaining a better understanding of how individuals select particular foods. The Agribusiness, Food, and Consumer Economics...